All natural water contains dissolved gasses, minerals and sediment that can lead to serious maintenance problems. These impurities can produce scale, corrosion, and sludge. In addition, water is susceptible to microbiological organisms that can plug valves and screens, restricting water flow. The treatment of "natural" or "raw" water used to heat and cool a building is essential. Many times, equipment failure, system breakdowns, high energy cost and poor heat transfer can be directly traced to (1) improper treatment of "raw" feed water or (2) law of treatment. Poor or no treatment can cause failure in the safety control of a boiler, causing an explosion which could destroy the building and jeopardize the physical safety of the occupants. Problems associated with water impurities can lead to system shut down. Poor treatment can lead to growth of dangerous bacteria and jeopardize the physical safety of the occupants.
1. The water in each system is effected naturally by location, weather, raw water components, etc. and there is no blanket treatment for all systems.
2. The heating and cooling equipment is specifically engineered for each site, thereby requiring a specifically engineered treatment program to match each design.
3. Each type of system (i.e. closed loop, cooling tower, steam boiler) requires a different treatment approach, again there isn’t one specific blanket treatment that can cover all systems.
Scale is "the accumulation of solids from the minerals contained in water, most referred to as hardness deposits, i.e. calcium and magnesium" - BAC. Boiler and condenser scale reduce efficiency
in boiler and cooling tower operations because all forms of scale possess a low degree of heat conductivity. The presence of scale is similar to spreading a thin film of insulation across the path of heat transfer thus reducing boiler and condenser efficiency. The rate of heat transfer may be reduced as much as 15% by the presence of scale. In a 200hp boiler, a 15% loss in heat transmission increases fuel costs as much as $21,000 a year based on a 12 hour day, 260 day year at 70% load, and No.2 fuel at $0.70 per gallon. Although, even more important than heat loss, is the effect of scale on causing boiler metal to overheat. This condition is called tube failure, which usually causes costly repairs and boiler downtime
"The sewer submeter program was instituted in the late 1950's to make allowances for commercial customers who use water that does not enter the sanitary sewer. Water used for irrigation , delivery of water to ships,and water used in manufactured goods or products are examples of situations where a submeter may prove beneficial."